Globally the population continues to grow at 1% while in Africa it is estimated that by 2050 the population will double. Further, half of the population in Africa is below 25 years and are at the onset of their careers. Africa is also one of the top ten fastest growing economies with East Africa growing at 5% annually. The implication of this is rapid urbanization leading to higher demands in all sectors. It is thus important for Kenya to link job creation, decent work and the green economy that is emerging and creating green jobs.
Green jobs as defined by the International Labour Organisation are decent jobs in any economic sector which contribute to preserving, restoring, and enhancing environmental quality by improving energy, raw materials, and water efficiency. This type of job should increase efficient consumption of energy and raw materials; it limits greenhouse gas emissions, minimizes waste and contamination; protects and restores ecosystems; and contributes to adaptation to climate change.
The current situation in Kenya
Prof. Izael Da Silva, the Deputy Vice Chancellor, Research, and Innovation at Strathmore University, reminded us during a webinar held on 28 th July, 2020, that the world is currently in transition in decarbonization, decentralization of energy systems and digitalization of skills. As a nation, Kenya intends to have a green, circular and bio economy by 2030. Therefore, we need to prepare to thrive in this emerging green economy otherwise a crisis is looming if we transition with a minimal workforce. He went on to give the example of Brazil and how they strategically prepared for agri-business, aeronautical engineering and petroleum exploration in the 70’s. Today, Brazil is at the top in agri-business.
At Strathmore University, we are looking ahead at the needs of the future. We recently began two new programmes: A Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and a Master of Science in Sustainable Energy Transitions. “We intend to ensure that these courses are linked to the Sustainable Development Goals so that they are ready for the future. As a country, we need to train people at all levels and make them tech savvy so that they can solve future problems,” Prof. Da Silva concluded.
The link between green jobs and decent work
Unfortunately, great training does not always equate a decent job. It is therefore paramount that from the onset decency of work is not forgotten which is the norm in emerging areas. A decent job as defined by ILO pays fair income, guarantees a secure form of employment, a safe working environment and ensures equal opportunities including social protection and freedom of workers to express themselves. An ongoing research by International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) reveals that the overall effects of renewable energy transitions on creating employment and developing the economy while supporting vulnerable groups are positive, noted Dr. Ulrike Ler, the Head of Socioeconomics at the International
Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). However, we need to ensure we maintain high working standards, otherwise the advanced technology will upset both the workforce and the financiers which will affect in the long run staff motivation and funding, she added. Dr. Urlike Ler advises that a company’s renewable energy policy should include decent work. When you handle projects and partnerships, this policy will ensure that those involved are not exploited.
The gap in technology transfer
Other than ensuring decency of work, technology transfer is a key component in green job creation. By adapting the best technologies around the world, we shall be able to create more green jobs in Africa. One way of looking at technology transfer is to have people in the country with the skills to be able to work on equipment, technology, and plants that support the green economy and that they can install, use, maintain, repair and re-cycle. Sadly, this is not the case.
Dr. Francis Kangure, Institutional Performance, Improvement Unit, RTI International spoke of his experience in the renewable energy industry over the past 10 years. He has seen organisations import equipment, fly in experts to train users on the equipment and assume that technology transfer has taken place. When the technology breaks down, the experts are then flown back in to repair. This leads our engineers to become users or installers because they cannot repair or re-use or produce. This is the gap. As partners in the sector, we need to adopt a different strategy. A complete technology transfer involves training to use, to repair, to produce, to recycle and to modify.
The webinar, which was moderated by Ms. Sarah Odera, Ag. Director, Strathmore Energy Research Centre, brought to the forefront areas that need to be tackled to ensure that Kenya is not only a green, circular and a bio economy by 2030 but that all involved in the emerging area have decent jobs with sustainable skills.
To listen more on this insightful webinar and tap into the future possibilities, click this link.
This article was written by Anne Njeri Njoroge.
Students pursuing higher education are set to benefit from Strathmore University’s new programme, Master of Science in Sustainable Energy Transitions, that was launched on Friday, 6th August 2021. The Master of Science in Sustainable Energy Transitions (MSc. SET) programme is designed to meet the skills needed by practitioners and policymakers as they embark on initiatives for creating access to clean, affordable, reliable and sustainable energy in Africa. The multi-disciplinary Masters programme will enable students with Engineering, Computer Science, Information Technology, Environmental Science and graduates in science related disciplines to gain a detailed and multi-faceted understanding of the energy ecosystem in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) while developing specialist skills that will enable them to positively contribute to the energy sector.
Speaking during the event, Dr. Vincent Ogutu, the Vice Chancellor Designate noted, “Access to affordable and reliable energy is a requirement for socio-economic development. Countries like Kenya report that households particularly in the rural areas are unable to pay for the cost of grid connection despite heavy subsidies received through initiatives like the Last Mile Connectivity Project. This is just one among many other challenges which require a multi-disciplinary approach to solutions, that considers technologies, policy, regulations, entrepreneurship, markets and economics.”
While admitting that the programme has come at an opportune time, Dr. Ogutu added that the course is a milestone in the trajectory of Strathmore University, “As we continue to shape global professions for the future by introducing market-oriented courses, more so in a continent that has many pressing development needs that require skilled, innovative and ethical professionals who will greatly contribute to creating a sustainable ecosystem.” Since its inception, the University has carved out a specific niche, which has informed the development and delivery of all its programmes. All Strathmore’s graduate and undergraduate programmes integrate the necessary skills and competencies for the formation of well-rounded, ethical leaders capable of contributing to social development through their service to society. Among the necessary skills required for this goal are innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship while leveraging on already established partnerships and linkages with global partners and collaborators.
Prof. Izael Da Silva, the Deputy Vice Chancellor, Research and Innovation reiterated on the transformation of the global energy sector from fossil-based to zero-carbon by2030. “This programme provides smart solutions and is deeply rooted on the essential 3 D’s of energy which are decentralization, de-carbonization and digitalization of energy systems.”
The launch ceremony was officiated by Eng. Naresh Mehta, Managing Director of Prisma Technics Ltd. Speaking to the need for developing a skilled workforce, Eng. Mehta lauded the University for taking the bold step in aligning its programmes to the Sustainable Development Goals. “This course supports the attainment of access to clean and affordable energy through Sustainable Development Goal 7. In addition, it provides a ready solution for the dire need to develop human capital for energy projects geared towards enhancing energy access by 2030 as well as build expertise to support the mega Infrastructure Development in Africa by the African Union.”
The launch event provided a platform for the awarding of scholarships, through a grant courtesy of Transforming Energy Access – Learning Partnership (TEA-LP), to candidates who met the admission criteria. This novel programme, with a partnership between eight African universities and a curriculum that is locally and internationally designed by industry players, is set to transform the energy sector by equipping early career graduates with technical skills and competencies to foster multi-disciplinary thinking that will enable them to develop sustainable energy transition solutions that respond to challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa.
To apply or know more about the programme, click this link: https://strathmore.edu/msc-sustainable-energy-transitions/
This article was written by Martha Ogonjo.
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The Kenya-UK Partnering for Accelerated Climate Transitions (Kenya-UK PACT) programme is delighted to announce that eight transformational projects have been awarded £3.7 million. These projects will support Kenya’s transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient growth.
The Kenya-UK PACT portfolio spans two priority sectors: energy and nature-based solutions.In the energy sector, UK PACT will be contributing to clean energy transitions and the development of off-grid community renewable energy sources through six projects. This will involve working closely with national government, counties and communities to ensure the transition is equitable and leads to the creation of green jobs.
In the nature-based solutions sector, UK PACT is supporting two projects. Both projects will support sustainable livelihood opportunities within landscape restoration. Additionally, one of the projects will focus on developing capacities for climate monitoring, reporting and verification.
The projects address the capacity-building needs of national, provincial and municipal government stakeholders. They will be implemented by a range of local and international organisations from the private and non-governmental sector, civil society and academia. All of the new UK PACT projects in Kenya support the UK COP26 Presidency objectives of accelerating a global transition to clean power that benefits jobs, workers, and communities and of protecting and restoring nature for the benefit of people and climate.
UK PACT energy sector projects:
- Ricardo AEA will work with Baringo, Migori and Tana River county governments, developing bottom-up, decentralised approaches to improve electricity planning and promoting investment into low-carbon electricity generation.
- IIED will develop inclusive, cross-sectoral energy projects with Kitui County which demonstrate how County Energy Plans can drive the development of low-carbon power to serve priority economic sectors.
- KPMG will work with the Ministry of Energy to develop an off-grid solar electrification programme to detail the methodology, activities and budgets required towards achieving universal access to electricity through standalone solar systems.
- Strathmore University will work collaboratively with the Narok county government to develop a data-driven energy plan to increase access to clean energy.
- The University of Birmingham project will design and demonstrate community cooling hubs to affordably meet a portfolio of rural community cooling needs, including food, health, and human comfort, whilst reducing emissions.
- The University of Edinburgh will co-design mini-grid energy models with selected rural communities to provide access to sustainable and affordable energy supplies from multiple local renewable energy sources.
UK PACT nature-based projects:
- World Agroforestry (ICRAF) will co-design locally relevant forestry restoration practices that work alongside crop and livestock farming systems, while enabling a national task force to monitor, report and verify (MRV) restoration outcomes.
- WWF will build on the Kaptagat integrated landscape restoration plan by training communities in agroforestry and climate-smart agricultural practices, providing employment and subsistence alternatives to unsustainable forest management practices.
This project portfolio will support a green, clean and resilient recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic in Kenya and the aims of COP26, hosted by the UK in Glasgow this November, accelerating action to rise to the challenges of climate change.
UK PACT is a £70m flagship programme funded by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). It is part of the UK’s £11.6bn International Climate Finance commitment between 2021/22 and 2025/26, which is the UK’s primary international instrument to help deliver on the Paris Climate Agreement goals. It is one of the vital tools we are deploying to tackle climate change internationally and support the UK’s COP26 Presidency objectives.
Through its grants, UK PACT aims to improve the capacity and capability of key public, private and civil society institutions to reduce emissions and foster inclusive economic growth in partner countries, including Kenya. Read more about the Kenya-UK PACT portfolio on our web page.
Full list of projects and implementing partners delivering the projects in Kenya:
|Name of the project||Lead implementing partner||Consortium partner|
|Enabling green development and recovery in Kitui County through energy planning||IIED||Caritas Kitui;
|Design of the national off-grid solar electrification programme||KPMG||n/a|
|Kenya Counties Programme for Decentralised Energy Systems (CODES) – County energy plan toolkit||Ricardo AEA||Kenya Climate Change Working Group|
|Energy planning tools and data-driven policy-making in Narok County||Strathmore University||World Resources Institute|
|RESILIENT Kenya||The University of Edinburgh||University of Bath; UK
Strathmore University; Kenya
World Vision Kenya;
Kenya Powerhive East Africa Ltd; Kenya
|Community Cooling Hub (CCH)||University of Birmingham||London South Bank University (LSBU); UK
African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS); Kenya
|Promoting nature-based solutions and national monitoring for land restoration||World Agroforestry (ICRAF)||World Resources Institute|
Eliud Kipchoge Foundation (EKF)
This article was first published by UK PACT here on 27th July, 2021.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has approved Strathmore University’s proposal to set up a UNESCO Chair for Climate Change Resilience and Sustainability. Slated to last five renewable years, the chair will encompass the disciplines of climate change adaptation and mitigation, access to electricity, energy efficiency, education of youth and women, and public policy.
Future of our planet
The project will be led by Professor Izael Pereira Da Silva, Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Innovation at Strathmore University. Prof Da Silva’s main research focus is sustainable development and energy. Having worked in this field for many years now, he believes climate change should be of paramount importance for all who are concerned with the future of the planet.
Speaking following the approval, Dr. Evangeline Njoka, the Secretary General of the Kenya National Commission for UNESCO, said, “Climate change is an emerging issue that manifests itself in ways that affect sustainable development. It not only threatens the survival of mankind, economies, and the environment, but also compromises the ability of most countries and the global community to achieve developmental targets.”
Prof Ramasamy Jayakumar, Head of the Natural Sciences Sector at the UNESCO Regional Office for Eastern Africa, also congratulated the university. “This is a very important milestone for Africa,” he said. “It focuses on three important interlinked Sustainable Development Goals, namely Zero Hunger, Clean Water and Sanitation, and Affordable and Clean Energy.” To achieve the overall goal of climate sustainability, he explained, it is necessary for these three sectors to be concurrently developed.
Weather the climate change storm
Through the new UNESCO chair, Prof Da Silva plans to collaborate with the government, development agencies, the private sector, and academia, to develop and disseminate transformative ideas and innovations within its subject areas. Through this work, the project will help societies weather and thrive through the negative effects of climate change.
The project places a special emphasis on Africa, which, though a minor contributor to global climate change, stands to suffer some of its worst effects, such as prolonged droughts and erratic floods. This imbalance calls for concerted scholarly efforts to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. Beyond clarifying and implementing existing climate-related policies, more must be done to curb the dangers of climate change while promoting resilience.
Through the project, Prof Da Silva also hopes to improve the understanding of ordinary people regarding climate change. Above all, he aims to inspire young people to take on the challenge of steering the future of the planet for the benefit of everyone. “I plan to train the next generation so that they can take care of our common home better than the current generation,” he says.
The UNESCO/ UNITWIN (University Twinning and Networking) Chairs Programme was launched in 1992 to promote international inter-university cooperation and networking to enhance institutional capacities, through knowledge sharing and collaborative work. Currently, eight universities in Kenya have UNESCO Chairs.
This article was written by Namachanja Ashley Nasambu, a third year Bachelor of Arts in Communication student.
In 2015, the Government of Kenya launched an ambitious plan to add 5,000 MW of electricity generation capacity to the grid in 40 months with the aim of improving availability of supply and thereby support economic growth. The excess electricity generation capacity was to supply flagship projects such as the electrification of the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR), a steel plant and Lamu port. The implementation of these projects was to lead to the industrialization of the country and transform Kenya into a middle-income economy by 2030.
However, in 2017, media reports indicated that the government had abandoned this plan because electricity demand did not grow at the anticipated rate. Despite indications that the 5,000 MW plan had been abandoned, plans to construct a 1000 MW coal power plant in Lamu remained. In 2017, Amu Power, an Independent Power Producer, signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Kenya Power, allowing it to supply electricity generated from coal to the Kenyan grid pending an environmental impact assessment license and partial risk guarantees to be awarded by the government to lenders in the project.
Public discourse has brought to the fore numerous arguments for coal with some parties indicating that additional capacity from coal would drive industrialization, as has been witnessed in many developed countries such as the US, Germany and China in the past. This article analyses this position with the aim of determining whether additional supply from coal will actually improve industrial performance.
Excess electricity generated
Electricity is indeed a requirement for socio-economic development and industrialization. However, Kenya currently has excess electricity generation capacity and therefore does not need supply. In 2017, in the Daily Nation, Cabinet Secretary for Energy Charles Keter indicated that the government was slowing down the implementation of the 5000 MW plan because of insufficient demand due to the counties’ failure to invest in mega-industries, which would serve to drive electricity demand. One can infer from this statement that the country has excess electricity capacity. Further, another article published in the Daily Nation indicated that Kenya Power had indefinitely halted the signing of new power purchase agreements because of excess capacity.
In fact, Kenyans have been paying for unutilized supply for the past five years. An analysis of data in Kenya Power’s annual reports indicates that the reserve margin (the difference between peak demand and installed generation capacity) has ranged from 22% to 45% between 2014 and 2018. In many nations, the recommended reserve margin is 15% or even less, to allow for demand growth and maintenance of power plants. According to the government, installation of further electricity capacity at the present rate would only increase excess capacity and thereby the cost of electricity.
Additional electricity capacity has not served to improve the performance of the manufacturing sector. Despite the existence of excess electricity generation capacity, the Economic Survey 2019 shows that the contribution of the manufacturing sector to the gross domestic product has declined from 10% in 2014 to 7.7% in 2018. These statistics indicate that electricity capacity in Kenya is not the impediment towards productivity as commonly touted. Rather, the manufacturing sector has repeatedly indicated that high cost of electricity sometimes up to 40% of the cost of production, and unreliable supply caused by poor transmission and distribution network has hindered its growth.  .
Contribution to excess capacity
Addition of a coal plant to Kenya’s electricity generation mix will cause an increase of Kenya’s electricity cost by contributing to excess capacity. The Least Cost Power Development Plan (LCPDP) 2017-2037, an electricity generation plan prepared by the government, indicates that a coal power plant, if constructed, would be utilized at a maximum capacity factor of 4.1% between 2024 and 2036, leading the levelized cost of electricity to peak at approximately KES 16 per kWh in 2024. The LCPDP also analyses an additional scenario, where the addition of coal power to Kenya’s electricity generation mix is delayed to 2029. In this scenario, the cost of electricity is KES 12.3 per kWh indicating that coal is not the best solution for Kenya’s electricity generation mix in the earlier periods.
The government should instead direct efforts to improve the transmission and distribution network, in order to increase the reliability of supply, enable a reduction in suppressed demand, and assist in the overall growth of consumption. This is a low-hanging fruit for a country that has its focus on increasing electricity demand. Affordability of electricity also needs to be a priority to enable domestic consumers enjoy the benefits of universal connectivity and allow the manufacturing sector to reduce production costs, therefore reaching the desired growth and competitiveness of the sector.
This article was written by Ms. Sarah Odera, Ag. Director, Strathmore Energy Research Centre and Prof. Izael Da Silva, Deputy Vice Chancellor, Research and Innovation. You can contact us at email@example.com.
The International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Strathmore University have today entered into a Memorandum of Understanding that will see the two institutions partner in training and sharing knowledge on water and energy- related subjects.
Training equipment and tools
This partnership will see Strathmore University offer physical space and technical learning capacities to ICRC’s team of engineers, staff, and other humanitarian partners, particularly in the field of renewable energy to enable sustainable power and water supply. The ICRC will in turn equip the University’s laboratories with customized training equipment and tools to the tune of 100,000 USD to be used by students taking these courses. The partnership comes in recognition of Strathmore’s knowledge and expertise in this field under its School of Computing and Engineering Sciences and its already well-established Energy Research Center. The new collaboration is intended to strengthen ICRC’s years of working to secure better living conditions, delivery of health services and livelihood initiatives, which include providing access to essential services as water and power supply for thousands of people affected by conflict around the world.
Increase access to energy and water
ICRC’s Head of Regional Delegation Olivier Dubois noted that, “the number of energy projects implemented as part of our operational responses has increased tremendously over the years and is expected to further accelerate in the context of global transition to renewable energy resources. Our team of specialists, specifically the Water and Habitat engineers, will benefit from this partnership which will see them consolidate their competence in this area as we seek to increase the use of renewable sources of energy in our operations and in our premises,” he said.
Prof. Izael Da Silva, the Deputy Vice Chancellor, Research and Innovation at Strathmore University added, “this training program will contribute to global efforts in increasing access to modern energy and water. Conflict areas have previously been neglected in such initiatives. Strathmore University is therefore delighted to partner with ICRC in this endeavour”.
By establishing the Energy and Water Knowledge Hub with Strathmore University, ICRC will create training services for ICRC staff and operational partners from all over Africa and beyond. The developed courses will also be made available on the market to other individuals and humanitarian agencies in need to scale up their technical competencies in this field.
The article was written by Ms. Anne Njeri, the Communications Officer at Strathmore Energy Research Centre.
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